Easy Open End
A convenience feature can end designed to be opened by utilizing an
integral tab opener to tear the container lid along a tear line formed in
the lid. The end is designed so that after the container is opened, safe
edges remain on the removable panel portion torn off from the lid body and
on the rim remaining on the container. This is accomplished by shielding
the residual tear line metal with multi-layer metal folds.
Lack of coincidence of the centre of the bore of a tube with that of the
outside circumference, resulting in variation in wall thickness.
See Electrolytic Chromium Coated Sheets.
Eddy Current Methods
Used to measure physical and mechanical parameters and for the detection of
surface imperfections in steel products. Eddy currents are so named because
their paths often resemble the circular eddies in water. The eddy current
method measures the electromagnetic interaction between a transducer or
test coil and the part being inspected. By this interaction such physical
parameters as the hardness, steel grade, and case depth can be inferred. In
addition, cladding thickness, foil thickness, and the presence of surface
or subsurface imperfections may be indicated.
Edge Break
A condition caused by an uneven roll surface. It is seen on the edges of a
coil, not across the full width of the coil.
Edge Buckle
Edge buckle is similar to center buckle except that the condition occurs in
one, or both edges, of the strip and is generally confined to a narrow
portion of the width.
Edge Buildup
Condition that results when burred or damaged plate causes the edge of the
coil to be higher in coating than the center of the coil.
1. Or edging rolls, are used to give a universal or rolled edge to the
2. The part of die used to distribute the metal in the proposition
necessary to fill the die impression.
Edge Rolling (Edge Conditioning)
Rolling a strip of steel to smooth the edges. By removing the burr off the
coil, it is safer for customers to manipulate.
The application of rolls to the edges of a rectangular section, for
example, slab, plate, strip and flat, with the object of controlling width
and giving a smooth edge of desired contour during the rolling process.
Rounding by forging an upended disc or cheese to form a blank.
Edge Wave
A condition in the band of steel where the edges (in the direction of
rolling) are longer than the center.
Elastic Deformation
Stretching of the material below the point at which a permanent "set" takes
place. That is, in the range where the metal acts spring-like or elastic.
Electric Process
A process of steel making wherein the source of fuel is electrical energy,
that is, heat from electric arc or induced eddy currents, and the process
is termed accordingly as electric arc process or induction process.
Electrical Sheet Steel
A group of steels made by electric process (silicon or aluminium alloyed)
and used for the construction of magnetic cores of electrical equipment,
because of their low watt-loss properties. They are divided into two
general classifications, (I) oriented steels, and (2) non-oriented steels.
The oriented steels are given mill treatments designed to yield
exceptionally good magnetic properties in the rolling, or lengthwise,
direction of the steel. Non-oriented grades are made with a mill treatment
that yields a grain structure, or texture, of a random nature and,
therefore, the magnetic properties in the rolling direction of the steel
are not significantly better than those in the transverse direction.
Electric Reduction Furnace
Used for smelting ores in the production of ferroalloys, such as
ferro-manganese, ferro-silicon, and ferro-chromium. These furnaces differ
from the steel-making furnaces in that production is continuous, as in a
blast furnace; the charge is placed in the furnace at the top and the
molten product tapped near the bottom. Electric furnaces are also used in
the smelting of iron ore.
Electric Soaking Pits
Developed to meet special requirements, such as control of scaling and the
maintenance of controlled atmospheres during the heating of stainless-steel
and alloy-steel ingots.
Electro Discharge Texturing
Developed to meet special requirements, such as control of scaling and the
maintenance of controlled atmospheres during the heating of stainless-steel
and alloy-steel ingots.
Electro-galvanizing Process
A cold-coating electroplating process in which the furnaces, galvanizing
pot, and the cooling tower of the hot-dip process are replaced by a series
of electrolytic cells through which steel passes. This process, unlike the
hot-dip process, does not influence the mechanical properties of the sheet
steel and provides a more uniform coating.
Electrolytic extraction
Removal of phases by using an electrolytic cell containing an electrolyte
that preferentially dissolves the metal matrix.
Electrolytic Galvanized
Cold Rolled or Black Plate to which a coating of zinc is applied by
electro-deposition; used for applications in which corrosion resistance and
paintability is a primary concern.
Electrolytic Polishing
An electromechanical polishing process in which the metal to be polished is
made the anode in an electrolytic cell where preferential dissolution at
high points in the surface topography produces a specularly reflective
Electrolytic Tin Coated Sheets (ETCS)
Cold rolled sheet coated with tin by electro-deposition through an acid or
alkaline process.
Electrolytic Tin Plate (ETP)
1. Light-gauge, low-carbon, cold reduced steel on which tin has been
2. Black plate coated with Tin (Sn) electron deposition.
A batch process used to produce a zinc coating on manufactured articles.
These may be functional (for corrosion protection) or decorative coatings.
Electric current is used to force the deposition of negatively charged zinc
ions from an acid solution onto the positively charged cathode, which is
the article to be coated. Produces thin coatings generally less than 10 um
(0.4 mils) thick.
A continuous process used to produce a zinc coating on steel sheet by
electroplating. Both sulfuric or hydrochloric acid solutions are used. The
most common method uses sulfuric acid with insoluble anodes. Produces thin
coatings generally less than 10 um (0.4 mils) thick.
Electro-magnetic Stirring
This process, carried-out during solidification of liquid steel in a billet
or bloom caster, imparts the following potential benefits to liquid steel
1. Internal quality (reduced segregation, cracking and porosity) through a
preferred solidification structure.
2. Sub-surface and internal cleanliness through a modified metal flow
3. Reduced criticality of casting parameters (temperature and casting
4. Increased productivity through increased casting speeds.
Electro-slag Remelting (ESR) Process
In this secondary steel making process, one or more steel electrodes of
about the desired chemical composition are drip-melted through molten slag
into a water-cooled copper mould at atmospheric pressure. The remelting
rate for this process is somewhat greater than that for the Vacuum Arc
Remelting (VAR) process, otherwise the two processes are similar. The ESR
process cannot eliminate hydrogen as the VAR process is able to do, but it
has the following capabilities :
1. Multiple electrodes can be melted into a single mould.
2. Spacing between mould wall and electrodes is not critical.
3. Ingot surface quality is excellent, requiring little or no
4. Steel can be desulphurized to 0.002 per cent sulphur content.
5. Bound, square and rectangular shaped ingots can be produced.
6. Larger size and weight ingots can be produced.
A process by which the thickness of alloy deposited on a strip can be
Tin coating by electro-deposition. This gives better uniformity and close
control of tin-coating weight obtainable, resulting in saving of tin.
Elevator Furnaces
Car-bottom furnaces where the car is rolled under the furnace shell and
then raised into the furnace by a motor-driven lifting mechanism.
Embedded Abrasive
Fragments of abrasive particles forced into the surface of workpiece during
grinding, abrasion or polishing.
A coating defect consisting of the crawling or dewetting condition where
the wet film recedes and forms a raised (in relief) impression. 
Organic material, which is applied in a film to protect or decorate
aluminum, tinplate, black plate or paper.
The capacity of a material to withstand repeated application of stress.
Epoxy Amino
Clear thermosetting coating with a combination epoxy resin and amino resin
to give adhesion, flexibility and toughness. They offer good chemical and
solvent resistance.
Epoxy Phenolic
Physical blends of epoxy and phenolic resins. Gold thermosetting coating
with a combination of epoxy resin and amino resin to give adhesion,
flexibility and toughness. They offer good chemical and solvent resistance.
Hot Extrusion : Consists of enclosing a piece of metal, heated to forging
temperature, in a chamber called a 'container' and having a die at one end
with an opening of the shape of the desired finished section, and applying
pressure to the metal through the opposite end of the container. The metal
is forced through the opening, the shape of which it assumes in
cross-section as the metal flows plastically under the great used. 
Cold Extrusion : It is carried out in a manner similar to the hot-extrusion
process, with two main exceptions : (1) The steel is at room temperature,
and (2) the surface of the piece is treated by some chemical process such
as bonderizing to assist in reducing the friction between the steel and the
container wall and die, in conjunction with special lubricants
Exit Reel (Delivery Reel or Prime Reel)
Reel used to wind the strip after the side trimming process.
Designation generally assigned to intermetallic, metal-metalloid and metal
non-metallic compounds found in ferrous alloy systems.
Progressive loss of original material from a solid surface due to
mechanical interaction between that surface and a fluid, a multi-component
fluid, or impinging liquid or solid particles.
In metallography, the process of revealing structural details by the
preferential attack of reagents on a metal surface.
Etch Cracks
Shallow cracks in hardened steel containing high residual surface stresses,
produced by etching in an embrittling acid.
See Electrolytic Tin Coated Sheets.
See Electrolytic Tin Plate.
Exact Length
Material cut to specified length and agreed tolerance.
Exit End
The delivery end of the line.
Extrusion Billet
A short length of billet or hot-rolled bar, either solid or with a central
Eye Bands
Metal bands wrapped through the center or "eye" of the coil to prevent it
from uncoiling and to hold strip mults together.
A coating defect, similar to cratering, but with exposed metal in the void.
Eye of Coil
The centre of the coil as wound.
The wavy projections formed in deep-drawing which normally occur in
geometric positions either at 45% or at 0% and 90% to the direction of
rolling. These are caused by directional properties in the sheet.
Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)
Steel making furnace where scrap is generally 100% of the charge. Heat for
melting and refining of steel is supplied from electricity that arcs
between the electrodes (usually graphite) or between electrode and the
metal bath. When the arc is between the electrodes, the process is termed
as the indirect arc process and when it is between the metal and the
electrode, it is termed as the direct arc process. Furnaces may be either
an alternating current (AC) or direct current (DC). DC units consume less
energy and fewer electrodes, but they are more expensive.
Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) Pipe
Pipe made from strips of hot-rolled steel which are is formed into tubular
shape by passing through forming rolls and welded by passing a heavy
current across the longitudinal joint. While seamless pipe is traditionally
stronger and more expensive than comparable ERW pipe, ERW technology is
improving and the technique now accounts for approximately 48% of OCTG
shipments by tonnage. Generally used by oil or gas companies.
1. Total plastic strain before fracture, measured as a percent or axial
strain during tensile testing.
2. This term is also used on orders specifying tensile test on which a
minimum elongation between give points and distances has to be met. This
elongation is expressed as percent of stretch over a given length, i. e.
25% elongation in 2 inches.
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